It is difficult to tell. From what little we know of earlier cultures, Jyotish has certain similarities to Chinese Astrology, and certain similarities to what little is known of ancient Druidic astrology, and there are some interesting similarities in certain Mayan astrological traditions. We still don't really have a good handle on early oral cultures.
We may also not have a really good handle on early written cultures -- paper, papyrus and palm leaves, the three predominant writing media, are quite perishable, and we may never know what knowledge was destroyed as a result of fires, invasions, or other mishaps through time, and there are a lot of bizarre anomalies in terms of what some oral socities seem to know -- look at the bizarre set of astronomical facts that the Dogon tribe of Mali seem to possess without any astronomical instruments.
Jyotisha also informs several of the other structural systems used in India and in Hindu centers, namely Ayur Veda the doshas and health afflictions can be judged from a Vedic chart and Vaastu also called Stapathya Veda are used in tandem with Jyotish. Although similar systems are used in Buddhism, there was an anti astrological period in Buddhism which makes it less of a fully realized system than the system practiced in India. First of all, Vedic astrology also known as Jyotish or Hindu astrology , is a compendium of techniques and approaches to astrology, which are used extensivley on the Indian subcontinent and which influence the various forms of divination practiced in many parts of Southeast Asia, including Tibet, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia.
The signs, houses and classical planets used in Western astrology are used in Jyotish, and there are many overlaps in the meanings of these symbols in both systems, but the Vedic system uses a sidereal zodiac which places all the planets and signs roughly 23 degrees earlier than their positions in the Western chart. The other major significant differences are the extensive use of harmonic charts the Vedic concept of harmonic charts inspired Western astrologer John Addey in his work ; the use of Nakshatras Lunar mansions which surround the Zodiac and are used extensively in the predictive work of Vedic astrology; and the ability to use remedial measures to rectify certain chart problems.
Much is made of the "fatalistic" bias of Vedic astrology and the system's complexity. However, recognizing a pattern does give one an option and a path to other things. The use of remedial measures such as gemstones,. Also, although the Vedic system s can be incredibly complex and it is often taught this way , there are many techniques which are quite simple and can be stunningly accurate. Vedic astrology's bias is extremely predictive. I have given and received readings that have been, through the grace of God, stunningly accurate.
And I firmly believe that this predictive ability is not particularly difficult to acquire The Western zodiac primarily follows the seasons as a reference point, assuming that the earth's axis is stable and does not shift. But the earth's axis does shift in terms of its relationship to the skies. This shift is caused by a slight wobble in the earth's axis. The entire perspective of the heavens changes gradually over a twenty-six thousand year period; Western astrology pays homage to this reality through its adherence to the tradition of world ages--that is, the age of Pisces, the age of Aquarius, and so forth.
The Hindu system however, uses the sidereal zodiac as its standard reference point.
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Perhaps significantly, the reckoning of when the two traditions started separating in their use of zodiacs probably occurred somewhere between and years after the birth of Christ. This is roughly the time that Ptolemy was making his influence felt in Western astrology, and some scholars claim evidence that Ptolemy felt that the tropical zodiac was better for individual charts, but the Greeks, with several notable exceptions Archimedes comes to mind were rather anti-experimental and extremely theoretical in approach As of the twenty-first century, there is now nearly twenty-five degree difference between the sidereal and tropical zodiacs--a significant difference, with significant interpretational implications.
The Hindu system also makes extensive use of a second zodiac that surrounds the constellational twelve sign zodiac used in the West. This zodiac contains the twenty-seven nakshatras, or lunar mansions. The lunar mansions assume incredible importance in the Vedic system because they provide a modifying influence on the planets in a chart, and they also provide a starting point for the destiny of the individual.
The Moon in a particular placement in a nakshatra day birth is extremely important to the person's future. The Nakshatras or lunar mansions are ruled by planets -- the Hindu system uses the seven classical planets and the North and South Lunar nodes, which are also referred to as Rahu and Ketu. The lunar mansions are also mentioned in Western astrology several hundred years ago and are also used in Arabic and Chinese astrology, but have limited predictive utility.
In the Vedic system, the Nakshatras lunar mansions are an integral part of the system, predicating the direction that the individual's mind represented by the Moon will take, and as we think we act. The Indian system even has a special condition in the astrology chart - Mangalika - which shows marriage difficulties. In order to have a good marriage, individuals with Mangalika should marry someone who has a similar condition in their chart. A difficulty with Mangalika is that neither party will usually be interested in linking with somebody with a similar condition. There has been a Mangalika condition present in the charts of most individuals with relationship problems for whom I have done readings.
The North and South Lunar Nodes are the points in space that are tracked to predict solar and lunar eclipses. These nodes -- Rahu and Ketu - are dominant features in the Hindu Astrological system. They are treated as planets and are assigned rulership over certain periods of our lives.
These "shadowy planets" can cause both overwhelming problems and extreme good fortune during our lifetime. The placement of Rahu can give outstanding material gain and public recognition, but little piece of mind Mick Jagger and many rock stars start their rise to fame and power during Rahu periods. The placement of the South Lunar Node Ketu can bestow great spirirual success and sudden fame and recognition, but can also cause difficulties with society and personal health. Hindu astrology also takes a different approach to aspects than Western astrology does.
Aspects in Western astrology are usually considered according to the nature or characteristic of the aspect. For example, trines planets that are degrees from each other or five signs apart create luck and opportunties. Those planets which are ninety degrees apart create conflict and difficulties, but also push the person forward in life. These are examples of the Western aspect principles. So, the Sun in Aries will always influence the sign Libra in this system. In addition, Jupiter casts aspects on spaces that are 5, 7 and 9 houses away similar to trine aspects ; Mars casts aspects 4, 7, and 8 signs away similar to squares ; and Saturn casts aspects on houses 3, 7 and 10 signs away, another type of square aspect.
Some schools also hold that Venus casts aspects on the 6th, 7th, and 8th houses away from itself. Since Jupiter is regarded as being a benevolent benefic, usually giving good results, this treatment is consistent with the way it acts in a natal chart. Saturn and Mars, being the two great malefic planets in the Vedic system reflect difficulties even in their looks! For example, Saturn's aspect on the second house will cause some problems in education, affects family fortune adversely, and can cause speech problems like stuttering or hesitation.
Jupiter's aspect will, however, cause expansion, increased luck and benefits to the house it aspects. It should also be mentioned that this system of astrology is not static--as the individual goes through certain periods of life, transits of the planets through various houses and sign and over various planets will improve or worsen the effects of the planetary period in which the individual finds him or herself. In the extensive astrological literature of the Hindus, a significant amount of attention is paid to remedial measures which can ease difficult properties in a person's chart.
For example, certain gem stones which must be administered carefully , mantras and rituals are said to alleviate the effet of particular difficult planetary configurations. I have experimented with these remedial measures and have obtained very good resulrs with them. In many cases, what could have been a serious problem from the chart was averted or delayed. I once noticed what should have been a major car accident in my chart.
All that happened was a broken hose. The car was stopped, but I was not injured. So, from my experiene, this system certainly works. There are certain other elements of Jyotish, such as the use of sixteen subsidiary charts to analyse things like career, education and so forth, which can be analyzed from these charts. It is already the official astrology of the world's third largest religion. The literature available on Jyotish is enormous and a great deal of it still needs to be translated into English. In addition, it needs to be interpreted so that it can be translated to a twenty-first century reality.
Fortunately this system is becoming more and more accessible to the public and is also being made more affordable because of the efforts of some dedicated souls. There are several exceptionally good software programs available at this time, and many Westerners, associated primarily with the American Council of Vediand the British Association Vedic Astrology, are teaching Vedic astrology and interpreting charts.
This attention to Jyotish has, I believe, encouraged Westerners to become more interested in the work of organizations like Project Hindsight here in the United States that are systematically examining the available old historical literature on astrology in the Western tradition.
Certain similarities have been uncovered between early Greek, Roman, Arabic and Mediaeval systems of astrology and Jyotisha. It is an extremely interesting and exciting time to be involved with astrology, and the researches these efforts bring forth will certainly be utilize extensively this century. Jyotish, I am sure, will be a centerpiece in this astrological renaissance. Tat Savitur varenyam bhargo devasya dhimahi dhiyo yo nah prachodayat.
This the famous Gayatri mantra, kept secret in India for hundreds of years as a special mantra used by the priestly caste. The Gayatri translates as a hymn of praise to the deity Savitri, who is one of the many manifestations of Surya, the Sun God. As a female deity, Savitri can be interpreted as the shakti or divine feminine energy of the Sun, its active principle. It is appropriate that any discussion of the Sun in Vedic astrology start with a mantra of praise to the life-giver of the universe.
It is as if the person's very identity becomes changed by the use of the Vedic adjustment, which takes into account the precession of the equinoxes. Vedic astrology's interpretation of the Sun in its role as king of the solar system and ruler of the zodiac is a bit similar to that of the West, but there is also a more difficult component to the Sun. In India it's often stated that the Sun "burns a hole in the chart. However, if one thinks of the hottest day of the year, and reflects that this heat is one infinitesimally small component of the Sun's power, we can understand the intensity and sometimes damage that the Sun's placement in a chart brings.
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In Vedic astrology the Sun doesn't represent the personality, but the self or ego, the inner nature of the individual. It represents one's essence, not the outer shell. The Sun also represents the direction in life which will give the person confidence, or create a self-defeating personality. It also represents the person's father. Vedic or Hindu astrology's major focus is predictive, so the main component in chart analysis is uncovering what may happen to the individual.
The Sun represents the soul of the individual, but it also functions as the penultimate authority figure. It is interesting to note that there are familial relations among the planets in Vedic astrology, and that the Sun functions as the father of Saturn through his relationship with a shadow Chhaya who is the handmaiden of the Sun's wife. Saturn represents limitation, grief or sorrow, as is befitting its shadowy origin.
The Sun also stands for the government and for religious authority temples. A partial listing of other items the Sun rules in Vedic astrology follows:. Self-esteem, physical appearance, risk taking, ego development, status, authority, the government the king or ruler , father, courage, confidence, illumination, achievement, determination, domination, dignity, elevation, the heart and spine, the head, right eye, pitta nature in Ayurveda, the Indian holistic health system, there are three humors or essential natures, which show the extent of fire, air, water or earth in our being; pitta is the fiery humor.
The Sun does best placed in the 10th house. Its gemstone is ruby or red garnet; its metal gold. It has Sunday naturally enough as its day. The Sun, as the natural atmakaraka soul indicator in Vedic astrology, can give the individual great pride and authority, when well placed by sign and house. It can give a great or powerful father, or give the individual "royal" stature, or benefits from rulers. The Sun, of course, when too strong can give too great an ego, or too high a level of pride.
This often results in a great fall, particularly if other planets in the chart especially the Moon are weak by sign and house placement. When too weak, the Sun can give low energy and a timid personality, but can also, on the positive side, give great humility, essential for success in spiritual pursuits.
Such a weak Sun, however, is often inauspicious for the person's father. This is very true of day births, but less true of evening births, in which Venus! The influence of other planets on the Sun will ameliorate or amplify certain traits in a chart. For example, the Sun and Jupiter in the same sign show an individual who is very religious, or who is very authoritarian about religious pursuits.
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Jupiter also gives good luck Indians believe Jupiter represents the grace of God , and this placement usually generates a very righteous person. But this combination can also indicate somebody who can convince anyone of the correctness of his or her position, and who gets away with things easily, thereby creating someone who may be extremely unethical or who takes shortcuts in business dealings.
The Sun conjunct Mercury usually shows high intelligence, but usually in the service of the ego, while the Sun conjunct Mars shows very high energy, a very hot tempered individual, good at arguments and battles, with strong will power but little patience. The Sun in the same sign with Venus gives a great deal of beauty to the individual, and perhaps ability in the arts and mathematics, which Venus also rules in this system of astrology.
All of these combinations show the way the Sun amplifies planetary energy. But there is also a phenomenon in Vedic astrology called combustion, in which planets close to the Sun are "damaged" by the intense rays of the Sun. How is this damage reflected? As Edith Hathaway pointed out in The Mountain Astrologer several months back, the obvious damage to the planet is not readily apparent.
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This is particularly true when we look at a "combusted" Mercury or Venus. Mercury close to the Sun certainly does not affect intelligence unless they are within one degree of each other. Acombusted Venus has been said to affect the happiness of the individual in terms of their romantic involvements, but there are many other combinations which can produce romantic unhappiness so such a pronouncement is difficult to measure objectively.
There is another area which must be considered, however. Vedic astrology pays a great degree of attention to rulership of houses. For example, Venus is the natural lord of Libra and Taurus. If Venus is within close range of the Sun, then these signs will suffer, and the houses which these signs represent will be damaged accordingly.
If Libra or Taurus is the 10th house, career suffers badly, because the lord of the house "must" first serve the lord of the solar system. The house the Sun rules, however, will flourish. In our example, a Taurus 10th house has a Leo rising sign, so Venus would serve the ruler of the Ascendant, giving great attractiveness and grace to such an individual.
If Libra were our 10th house, then Venus would be serving the ruler of the unfortunate 8th house. This would give high spiritual aspirations and abilities, but little career success in life. The Sun obtains maturity in the individual's 22nd year. The concept of planetary maturity is important in Vedic astrology because it demonstrates when the effects of the heavenly bodies will most aggressively manifest. It is another element to consider when assessing the patterns of the person's life.
The Sun manifests right at the time that young men and women in our society have traditionally been deemed to enter adulthood. It is the time when they start to shoulder the responsibilities of career, of making their own lives for themselves, of becoming their own fathers, as it were. I live in a section of the Northeast which has a high unemployment rate and a disproportionate share of poverty and I have seen many charts with weak Suns, so we have maturity and self-support delayed, absent fathers through divorce, abandonment, illness, or death and a consequent damage on the area of life which Leo governs in the person's chart.
Since Leo represents children or the entire patriarchal lineage of the family , an afflicted Sun also damages the children of the individual. This does not mean that every person with a weak Sun has a lack of male parental contact, or a bad male role model. A strong 9th house will usually offset this aspect of the chart. But I have noticed that these individuals will tend to break away from the father's authority, then reconnect with the male side of the family when the lord of the 9th or 10th house "achieves maturity" if that planet is strong.
The initial qualities of responsibility may be too much to assume at age 22, or the individual's father may not be a good or trustworthy role model, but after the individual matures, peace may be made with the male parent at a later time. Vedic astrology, especially in the Vimshottri year dasa system used by the vast majority of astrologers, ascribes especially strong planetary influences on the individual during certain periods.
The dasa system is said to be the best predictive instrument, better and more complete than transits, progressions yes, these exist in Vedic astrology or the planetary maturity measures I discussed earlier. The dasa system ascribes a certain number of years to each planet. For example, Jupiter dasa lasts for 16 years; Saturn for 19 years, Mercury for 17 years, Ketu for seven years, Venus for 20 years and the Sun for six years. The Sun dasa is the shortest in the Vimshottri system, which is just as well because, if the Sun is weak and afflicted, it is the worst period one is said to encounter.
It produces intense difficulties, wanderings from place to place, and time spent "in the desert. I have examined dozens of charts in which a weak Sun produces intensely malefic results. The Sun, the primary giver of life, is considered a krura or cruel entity. The heat of the Sun in India reaching Fahrenheit or higher in Southern India in the month of April, coincidentally the same period of time in which the Sun is exalted in Vedic astrology is unbearable in its intensity. This period is usually between April 15 and May 15, the time when our Sun government is most difficult to bear because of tax season.
Everyone must obey the Sun during this time. Life, it must be realized, is often difficult, but we need to obey the rules of the universe in order to preserve our bodies and minds. Every planet contributes something to the preservation and continuance of life from the Vedic perspective, but the ultimate giver of life is the Sun. Those for whom the Sun is weak often have unfortunate or "defeated" fathers. They often do not understand the need for authority. They often have little luck with the government or other authority figures, and usually lack confidence. Is it any wonder that these individuals have so much difficulty with the Sun dasa, when the heat from the Sun is felt so intensely?
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Charpak and Broch noted that, "There is a difference of about twenty-two thousand miles between Earth's location on any specific date in two successive years", and that thus they should not be under the same influence according to astrology. Over a year period there would be a difference greater than , miles. In the West, political leaders have sometimes consulted astrologers. For example, the British intelligence agency MI5 employed Louis de Wohl as an astrologer after claims surfaced that Adolf Hitler used astrology to time his actions. The War Office was " However, Quigley's role ended in when it became public through the memoirs of former chief of staff, Donald Regan.
There was a boom in interest in astrology in the late s. The sociologist Marcello Truzzi described three levels of involvement of "Astrology-believers" to account for its revived popularity in the face of scientific discrediting. He found that most astrology-believers did not claim it was a scientific explanation with predictive power. Instead, those superficially involved, knowing "next to nothing" about astrology's 'mechanics', read newspaper astrology columns, and could benefit from "tension-management of anxieties" and "a cognitive belief-system that transcends science.
They were much younger than those at the first level, and could benefit from knowledge of the language of astrology and the resulting ability to belong to a coherent and exclusive group. Those at the third level were highly involved and usually cast horoscopes for themselves. Astrology provided this small minority of astrology-believers with a " meaningful view of their universe and [gave] them an understanding of their place in it.
In , the sociologist Theodor W. Adorno conducted a study of the astrology column of a Los Angeles newspaper as part of a project examining mass culture in capitalist society. The comparable percentage has not been this low since In India, there is a long-established and widespread belief in astrology. It is commonly used for daily life, particularly in matters concerning marriage and career, and makes extensive use of electional , horary and karmic astrology.
On February , the Bombay High Court reaffirmed astrology's standing in India when it dismissed a case that challenged its status as a science. In Japan , strong belief in astrology has led to dramatic changes in the fertility rate and the number of abortions in the years of Fire Horse. Adherents believe that women born in hinoeuma years are unmarriageable and bring bad luck to their father or husband. In the fifteenth century, references to astrology, such as with similes , became "a matter of course" in English literature.
In the sixteenth century, John Lyly's play, The Woman in the Moon , is wholly motivated by astrology,  while Christopher Marlowe makes astrological references in his plays Doctor Faustus and Tamburlaine both c. In seventeenth century Spain, Lope de Vega , with a detailed knowledge of astronomy, wrote plays that ridicule astrology. In his pastoral romance La Arcadia , it leads to absurdity; in his novela Guzman el Bravo , he concludes that the stars were made for man, not man for the stars.
The most famous piece of music influenced by astrology is the orchestral suite The Planets. Written by the British composer Gustav Holst — , and first performed in , the framework of The Planets is based upon the astrological symbolism of the planets. The composer Colin Matthews wrote an eighth movement entitled Pluto, the Renewer , first performed in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with astronomy , the scientific study of celestial objects. Pseudoscience claiming celestial objects influence human affairs. Main articles.
Death and culture Parapsychology Scientific literacy. Main article: History of astrology. See also: Babylonian astrology.
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Main article: Hellenistic astrology. Main article: Hindu astrology. Main article: Astrology in medieval Islam. See also: Christian views on astrology. Further information: Chinese zodiac. See also: Christian views on astrology , Jewish views on astrology , and Muslim views on astrology. Main article: Astrology and science. James  : Mars, the Bringer of War. Venus, the Bringer of Peace.
Mercury, the Winged Messenger. Jupiter, the Bringer of Jollity. Uranus, the Magician. Oxford Dictionary of English. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 11 December Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster Inc. The Blackwell Dictionary of Western Philosophy. Mesopotamian astrology: an introduction to Babylonian and Assyrian celestial divination.
Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press. Foreword, The cosmic perspective 4th ed. Biswas, D. Mallik, C. Bappu 1. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Asquith, ed. Dordrecht: Reidel. National Science Foundation. Archived from the original on 1 February Retrieved 2 August About three-fourths of Americans hold at least one pseudoscientific belief; i. Bibcode : Natur. Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. Bibcode : IAUS.. Pingree; Robert Andrew Gilbert. Retrieved 7 October Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 6 July Astronomical Society of the Pacific.
May Personality and Individual Differences. To optimise the chances of finding even remote relationships between date of birth and individual differences in personality and intelligence we further applied two different strategies. The first one was based on the common chronological concept of time e.
The second strategy was based on the pseudo-scientific concept of astrology e. Sun Signs, The Elements, and astrological gender , as discussed in the book Astrology: Science or superstition? Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 December Differentiation between astrology and astronomy began late s and by 17c. Oxford English Dictionary Second ed. September In Old French and Middle English astronomie seems to be the earlier and general word, astrologie having been subseq.
Not in Shakespeare. History of western astrology. Volume II, The medieval and modern worlds first ed. Moyer Bell. The Homeric hymns and Homerica Reprinted ed. Cambridge, Mass. Fifty days after the solstice, when the season of wearisome heat is come to an end, is the right time to go sailing.
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The chronology of ancient nations. London, Pub. Allen and co. Essays on the History of Western Astrology. Horoscopes and history. Warburg Institute. January Dante's interest in astrology has only slowly been gaining the attention it deserves. Like Palgen, he [Kay] argues again, in more detail that Dante adapted traditional astrological views to his own Christian ones; he finds this process intensified in the upper heavens.
It can hardly be doubted, I think, that Dante was thinking in astrological terms when he made his prophecies. I, lOOff. L, 82, col. Confessio Amantis. VII, — Star-crossed Renaissance. Duke University Press. Laurens Pignon, O. Venlo, The Netherlands: Jean Mielot. The mechanization of the world picture.
Explorations in Renaissance Culture. Retrieved 10 February The Jewel House. Elizabethan London and the Scientific Revolution. Yale University Press. British Library Add. Retrieved 12 June Annals of Science. Enlightenment: Britain and the Creation of the Modern World. London: Continuum. At the same time, in Switzerland, the psychologist Carl Gustav Jung — was developing sophisticated theories concerning astrology Adler, Gerhard ed.
Jung Letters: — Letter from Jung to Freud, 12 June "I made horoscopic calculations in order to find a clue to the core of psychological truth. Wolfgang Pauli's Dialogue with C. Jung , Springer, Berlin, p. Wiener, ed. Dictionary of the history of ideas. New York: Scribner. Lewis, Visible Ink Press. Online at Google Books. The Modern Text-Book of Astrology. Romford: L. Llewellyn's Complete Book of Astrology. North; A History of Western Astrology. Be Your Own Astrologer. Rising Signs. Aquarian Press. Persuasions of the witch's craft: ritual magic in contemporary England. Harvard University Press.
In Biswas, S. Cosmic Perspectives. Cambridge University Press. In the Vedic literature Jyotis[h]a, which connotes 'astronomy' and later began to encompass astrology, was one of the most important subjects of study The earliest Vedic astronomical text has the title, Vedanga Jyotis[h]a Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. American Philosophical Society. The Transmission of Astrology". International Journal of the Classical Tradition.
Bibcode : IJCT Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. Astrology in China. Retrieved 22 July Changing zodiac astrology horoscope prediction' ". Archived from the original on 3 January Catholicism and science 1st ed. Westport: Greenwood. New York University Press. Brill, Mathematics and Physical Sciences'. Stravinskas Our Sunday visitor's Catholic encyclopedia Rev. Huntington, Ind. Retrieved 8 July Astrology True or False? Prometheus Books. Journal of Scientific Exploration. Archived from the original on 18 March Jerome; Paul Kurtz In Patrick Grim ed.
Philosophy of Science and the Occult. Science Communication. This underlies the Barnum effect. Named after the 19th-century showman Phileas T. For example, the more birth detail is used in an astrological prediction or horoscope, the more credulous people tend to be Furnham, However, confirmation bias means that people do not tend to pay attention to other information that might disconfirm the credibility of the predictions. Nickerson Review of General Psychology. Astrology: Science or Superstition? Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Cognitive biases. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Zalta older edition London: Routledge. The relevant piece is also published in Schick Jr, Theodore Critical Thinking: Step by Step. Lanham, Md. Social Studies of Science. Imre Lakatos ; Alan Musgrave eds.